Screen Protector
- Sync - TX Menu soft button - TX user interface Address Book Import/Synch
Other Transfers
Desktop Software Updates
User interface
- Graffiti Input (original and 2)
Reliability of function
Operating System
Credit to Palm and Handspring

** NEW **
- Note that Palm is now part of Hewlett-Packard, who have a fairly good set of support pages on their web site. I list TX pages in a separate file on it, with general tips on how to use HP's pages.
- I've added some information specific to the TX in a separate page.
The Palm 5xx series is now quite old, and the TX has not had an o/s upgrade to fix defects.
So Palm PDAs are becoming obsolete.


These TIPS are primarily usable for Palm 500, 505, 515, and the TX. Some may be helpful for the predecessor of the TX - the Tungsten T5, and some of this information will be educational for users of other models and other brands - connectors and Graffiti language, for example. Refer to my general PDA page for general advice on PDAs.


Viewing Events

The M5xx/OS410 has rollover viewing of details, and drag-n-drop moving of events between days in week view.
For rollover you must lift stylus between events to avoid dragging them.
In OS 541 on the TX tapping the event pops up its text. You cannot drag events.
You can attach notes to events, thereby reducing space taken in schedule view and avoiding the limit on number of characters per event.


With the Palm monochrome display, such as on M500, visibility in normal and low light is better with the backlighting off - only when dark does the backlight help. (Some o/s upgrades improve control of backlighting but it's still not great visibility.)
The colour display on M505 and M515 is much better, and later models even better.


Palm finally settled on a standard connector, they call the "universal connector". Models prior to the Palm 500 (e.g. III, V, VII etc.) as well as the M105 and some Zire models do not use it thus may have several variations, making accessories costly and now difficult to find. (I'd hope that the IIIe and VII series are the same, given their similar vintage and housing, but the V and 5xx series are different despite having the same housing. The M125, M130, M5xx, Zire 71 and i705 use the universal connector, as well as some Tungsten models (especially early ones; T series except T5/TX, W, and C - the E2 model does not use it, the basic E had a quite different scheme).

I do not know what the Handspring models used. (Handspring and Palm merged, traded as PalmOne for a while then reverted to simply Palm. Handspring basic PDAs resembling the Palm III but with accessory-module capability.) They also made the Treo phone-PDA combination, apparently with two connectors, the one I describe below and an earlier one.

But in the middle of the Tungsten series Palm switched to a connector variously called "Athena" or "MultiConnector". Use is:
“MultiConnector”, aka “Athena”, is on T5, TX, E2 (not basic E), Treo 650/700/750 (not 600)
“Universal” connector used by Tungsten T & T2 & T3 & C & W, probably also by Treo 600, as well as some earlier models as listed above.
Tungsten E used a mini-USB connector, and perhaps a coaxial power connector.
The sync cables labelled for Treo models should work with Palm PDAs with the same connector.

You want a sync cable with its own sync button, some don't have that so you have to go into the device's menus to find Hotsync.

Sync cables without the cradle/dock tend to rotate in pitch which stresses the latches and can result in contacts not mating properly. I add a piece of plastic to the back, using agressive double-sided tape or suitable glue. You may need to fiddle with bending the spring clips, but that is tricky - easy to overdo it.
The Palm cables shipped for the Multiconnector hold more securely but can also deteriorate with use. The connector has a separate power socket, which the power-brick cable includes in the width of its connector, USB-powered cables without the power connector charge through other contacts but more slowly.

(Thanks to's web site for some of the information I use herein.
I recommend them as a source of repairs, accessories, upgrades, and new Palm PDAs.)


Original stylus for the Palm M5xx have a small tip on the hidden end of the cap (it unscrews from the barrel), to actuate the reset button on the back. Those sold by Belkin may not (one package F8E720t did not, another package did but the stylus were thicker - theoretically less likely to fall out but those were a bit too thick). However a paper clip end works. The button on the TX and perhaps other newer models can be activated with the normal stylus tip.
Stylus fit is a tower of Babel. I think the following matches will work:
T5 & TX (M5xx stylus will stay in the slot but is shorter, reverse won't fit)
E & E2
T, T2, T3
m150, Zire, Zire 21, Zire31
m500, m505, m515, i705


In general the stylus groupings are a rough indication of size match for cases. (Of course the harder the case the closer match you need.)

I like the flip-open hard cases as they fit in my pocket better, but they are matched exactly to the PDA size.
You may be able to find a zippered case meant for a portable external hard drive or a small GPS navigator that will fit.

Screen Protector sell a protector with cutting outlines for several models, it can also be cut to fit the taller TX.
Pre-cut to fit are often available, made by Palm or other companies like Fellowes.
Screen protectors are essential if you are likely to mistakenly use the metal tip of a pen, but reduce sensitity on the M5xx series (not so much on the TX). Some brands are thicker than others.


Individual memos marked Private are not listed in Desktop 4.0.1. On the Palm o/s 4.1.0 they are listed but shading obscures their title - yet they can be viewed as any other document if the Palm does not have an overall pasword assigned (if it does, the password is also required to view Private memos). Oops! In Desktop 4.1 there is a selection to view or not view, on installation of the software the default is View. (Settings are in several places in Desktop: Tools|Options, Tools|Preferences, HotSync|Setup, and right-click on the HotSync icon on Windows' desktop tray under Setup and Custom as well as several communication-specific topics there. Some setting locations are duplicated, some split - especially communication settings.)
Somewhere there is a setting to show the owner's name on the lockout screen if a password requirement is set.

According to Wikipedia the user password is not respected by PC applications other than Palm Desktop. The TX has an encryption option beyond the basic password, important as it has Internet connectivity.

Palm devices prior to the T5/E2/TX can be erased by unplugging the internal battery and leaving it for a while. (Check afterward of course. In theory the battery will eventually self-discharge. The T5/E2/TX keep data in non-volatile memory so you'll have to clear it manually with Desktop and the device, user name may be retained somewhere in the computer after uninstalling Desktop, perhaps it can be cleared manually in Desktop or the device before uninstalling - Desktop has a User Name management dialogue which you could set to something meaningless if it doesn't allow not having a name.)


Sync: - The combination of Palm Desktop 4.0.1 and Palm o/s 4.1 has a defect - it won't synch to Palm Desktop when Desktop is still open - claims to have synched but has not changed any data on the Palm device. Desktop 4.1.4 works correctly.

I started keeping the Desktop 4.1.4 installation file on my laptop computer while away from home, as I have had two cases of inability to synch, which required reinstallation to fix. However, before reinstalling try shutting Desktop and rebooting the computer. And make sure the HotSync TSR is active in Windows' startup (Run MSCONFIG|Startup - it doesn't show in Manage|Services, probably can be restarted by commanding it in Start|Programs|Palm).

I suggest if creating a memo in Desktop by pasting from a document to first paste into Notepad then into Desktop - I suspect Palm's software cannot handle some information that gets pasted from word processor files, resulting in failure to synch that category. (Notepad strips most hidden information, though even doing that I've seen problems with long lists.)
I find that sync via infrared sometimes gets locked out on the M5xx series, with error message that it is in use by another application. Soft reset seems to fix that for a while. Elsewhere herein I talk about the settings needed to enable infrared synch.
On occasion cable sync won't work, occurs with both M5xx and TX models and their associated Desktop software. The computer is recognizing an attempt and advises that another computer is nearby, but does not display the sync progress symbols. Reboot fixes that, a common cause is that HotSync closes so is not available (normally it starts on bootup and stays ready) - see above re restarting.
Both problems may be caused or at least made worse by connector contact problems.

Address Book import/synch

See my Palm page on Address Book matters.

Other Transfers

Desktop 4.1 has a SendTo command in its Edit menu, which on my computer allows copying the contents of a Memo to Microsoft Word. (Only Word is listed despite WordPerfect also being on my computer, though Word was updated after Desktop 4.1 was installed - some program installations look for other programs to link to. SendTo Word opens word and places the contents in a new document.)

Memos can be partially viewed in WordPad, which is available in most Windows installations. Some Palm PDAs come with additional software that may help edit in place on the Palm and transfer files. (And a strength of the Palm o/s is the number of third-party applications available.)

Palm o/s 4.1 lets you just start writing a note when in day view (an untimed event is created, not a regular Note which you'd have to look into its Note Pad to see).

Desktop 4.1.4 has a QuickInstall feature that facilitates copying files to the Palm or to a card in it. It is in the left-side menu, scroll down to see the icon. Instructions for add-in updates like raising the copy size limit will specify using it. Note that the .prc file to be placed in the Palm will be listed in C:\Windows\Program Files\Palm [or palmOne]\[user]QuickInstall prior to sync but not after synch. To see what is loaded in the Palm dig through the Copy and Info selections from the left pull-down when any of the Home screen of application icons is displayed.

You'll need to delete old calendar entries to suit a Palm limit on number of records, even when there is ample memory left. That command is "Purge", in Desktop, which will present choices of vintage to delete and an Archive option. Archives can also be created from File|Export. Archives can be imported.

The CD that came with your Palm probably does not include the OS to reload. Where an update is available, as for the M500 and M505 for example, it should be on Palm's web site. (If you plan to keep using your old Palm for a while I suggest you squirrel away all the support files you can.)


Palm solution ID 887 details the main methods of resetting your hand-held. I suggest creating a card or label with the essentials, as there are some options and subtleties, and the exact method may vary with model. (There is also a "Debug" mode on the M5xx series, useful if upgrade of o/s fails, and for 3rd-party software that lets user access flash memory directly - there may be a procedure to reformat that memory, and an Extra Hard Reset which is complex. The ultimate reset for Palms prior to T5/TX vintage is to open the case, disconnect the battery, and leave it sit for several hours - you may have to use it if the power light stays on. You'll need very small Torx screwdrivers, size varying with production vintage, and wide prying tools - see if you can find instructions on the Internet. (Yes, Palms - at least now older models like the m5xx series, will lose their data if you run the battery down! (The Tungsten T5 and TX will not.)
*** Newer Palms have different terminology, such as "factory reset" instead of "hard reset", but the ID 887 document covers many. (With the switch to HP's web site, there is information available on it.)

After resetting your Palm, you should open HotSync|Custom in Desktop and set all over-write options to Desktop Over-writes Handheld. After synching and ensuring the handheld now contains your data, ensure those settings are back to Synchronize.

And if you have problems upgrading the operating system, read those and the debug instructions carefully - some steps are tricky and some Palm documents can mislead you. But the good news is that some of the debug procedures work even if the display is not responding as expected - if you are confident you are doing it correctly proceed to the end anyway. Also note that indications are slightly different between M500 and M505, a distinction not in all documentation.

Desktop Software Updates

See my Palm Desktop page for information.

User Interface

Use of the memory in an SD card seems to be evolving from "awkward". For example, the applications on cards I've tried - including Palm's own Dictionary & Thesaurus card - do not show on the Palm screen's array of icons, instead the inserted card is tacked on the end of the Categories pull-down filter list and tapping that gives a screen for the card with icons of what is on it. (There is a Card Info icon, but it does not name the applications on the card so does not link to opening them - and its display does not have the pull-down list, so you have to go back to the screen array.) I do not have experience with files the user has loaded on the card - that capability is emerging from a poor start (advances were made in o/s 4.1 and Desktop 4.1). Third-party loading apps, such as DocsToGo, should have an icon in the normal screen array to help find those files. And if the application on the card can be installed in Palm memory perhaps it would be in the array. Nevertheless, I keep the Dictionary card in the slot.)

In learning to use the Palm, get familiar with the pull-down menus - most of which are disguised as status blocks. One of those, the "launcher", has a command that can be used to copy files, and with greater risk programs, from the Palm to an SD card. Open the block at top left of screen - and select Copy to see To and From plus a list of what is on the source. Another is the "pick list" at top right, often used to list data sources or filters (such as All versus individual memo categories). Both the launcher and pick list are usually context-sensitive.

I cover the TX' user interface in the file
For keyboards I've tried the Belkin SnapNType thumbpad, Logitech TypeAway folding keyboard, and Flexis rollup keyboard. Ease of use descends in that order. A key requirement for keyboards is that the most common commands are on keys. For example, the SnapNType has a dedicated Memo key but it opens a new memo and appears to lack a Save function - commands are layered four deep on those keys. Its keyboard is not standard. (Width and height are reduced by putting symbols like comma and period as as well as numbers on letter keys requiring use of the Function-shift key - not a familiar keyboard layout despite use of standard QWERTY layout for letter keys.) Some keyboards do support copy-cut-paste conventions. There is no ESC key (when using the stylus you simply tap the screen to eliminate an unwanted menu overlay).
As with the Palm itself, you have a learning curve to use the keyboard effectively - because you need to use commands that are not on your computer keyboard, but some of them may be in different places especially needing to press a Fn key.
A fundamental problem is the need to tap the screen because the keyboard lacks commands - if you have to hold a stylus in your hand while typing why not just stick with the on-screen keyboard or graffiti? (How did designers manage that omission?) Keyboards will be most useful for entering large amounts of text. (However, there are limits on the size of Memos and such in a Palm.)

Do make sure you align the "digitizer" (tapping targets with stylus) as misalignment may affect scroll arrows, which in some lists are undependable in any case. (If a scroll arrow is not working you may be able to drag the stylus beyond the top of the list to scroll it.)

The short timeout for power off and locked is a bother, a balance of convenience with power saving and security. You can set some Palms to stay on in the charging/synch cradle, at least the m5xx series - seems to not work on TX.


With Palm Graffiti, write large and watch for missing characters. (Instead of alerting you that it did not recognize what you scribbled it does nothing until it recognizes an input such as a subsequent character - whose strokes it may combine with the last input to create unusual characters. I often get the squeeezed ae character, and sometimes oriental characters.) Make sure you keep pressure on throughout the entire character.
Reports from experienced users suggest that the newer version of Palm Graffiti, version 2, is not great either. (PalmOne pages for Developers indicate that o/s 4.1.2 includes Graffiti 2, but it is not listed in Support as an upgrade for the Tungsten W which shipped with 4.1.1 nor for the M5xx series which shipped with 4.1.0 or earlier. (One forum participant claimed that 4.1.2 shipped on later M515s.) Otherwise you'll need to have a Palm device that supports o/s 5 or later, such as Tungsten models (the W shipped with 4.1.1 but I don't know if it can be upgraded to 5). (Shipping information from the table in Support.))

The TX has v2 of Graffiti, with some differences in how letters are formed (notably using multiple strokes - you have to be quick, OTOH there's a delay in screen display due the interval given you to enter). Generally letters are easier, punctuation marks and special characters much harder. And oddities - the letter e can be written two ways, but the defect that recognizes a 2 as a 4 despite the numbers being quite different is still there (seemingly worse - it recognizes very broadly including the ( character, I suggest writing 2 without much turndown at the top free edge and with little curvature at the botton of the vertical part). Recognition of letter j is sloppily coded, the straight-line entry for quotation marks is always recognized as j instead. And some symbols do not functions as described - the + symbol requires a shift motion to distinguish it from a t, contrary to Palm's user manual. (You might have better success with the three-panel entry area than the two, or vice versa.
I put a copy of the quick-reference sheet in my case, Help is available by making a long stroke bottom to top of entry area.

The TX has two differences in the character entry area compared to the M5xx series: - capital letters can be achieved by writing them across the divider between alpha and numeric sections of the entry area>BR> - an optional display mode splits the character entry area into three panes, for upper case, lower case, and numeric. (Select Wide vs Classic in the Preferences|Input dialog. You can probably do without the soft buttons you'd have in Classic mode, if you remember to push the hard buttons repeatedly to cycle through views and forgo the shortcut ones.) - There's also a mode that puts an on-screen keyboard in that area instead, switch by tapping on the abc or 123, revert by tapping the symbol at bottom right. Did I say you'll be on a learning curve with the TX? ;-)

Sensitivity of the screen on the TX seems noticeably better than the M515.
There's even a hint of what Apple fully exploited on the iPhone, scrolling by dragging your finger (for photo viewing, alas not in other views where it would be more difficult to integrate).


To use higher capacity SD cards with the M5xx series you may have to install an add-in, such as the File Manager update for the m5xx series. Note that SD cards above 2GB may not be useable in any case, because they require a 32-bit file system.
(You can probably fill the internal memory easily on older Palms like the m505, so SD cards can be useful if you work out how to use them.)
I have used 1GB and 2GB SanDisk cards card in the TX.
Don't forget to format the cards in the device.


In my opinion based on my experience, the combination of Palm 4.1.0 or 4.1.4 operating system and Palm Desktop 4.0.1 software running under Windows is not reliable enough to trust with very important data not readily reproduced. It loses data you've entered in the PDA. The TX also loses data, seemingly less frequently. (I suspect it is related to automatically powering off.(
Desktop does refuse to perform hot-synch if a data-editing window is open.

One cause of data loss may be improper computer shutdown, sometimes needed if Windows locks up.
Desktop does not write new data to disk as it is entered. Sometimes you'll see it write as it is closing, and sometimes AutoSave writes to disk (must be enabled, can be set to be as little as 10 minutes - I see it happen but don't trust it as I have lost data when Windows crashed despite being more than 10 minutes since entry). You may be used to software that records each item as you close or OK it, such as Client Manager/Address Book from Studio Software, whereas Desktop does not have that type of interface in all functions. A small piece of good news is that you can command SaveAll from the file menu, and you can use the usual Windows shortcut keys to File|Save.
(My practice is to manually save frequently, to protect against crashes - in one case the computer crashed and edits in Desktop were lost but restored on next sync (I must have synched after the edits but do not remember if I saved after the edits, it may be that caching was a factor as the crash occurred quickly resulting in reboot). I learned to save after every new entry as a matter of habit.

And caching by DOS/Windows and/or hard drives is a long-known problem, especially with hard drives having large internal cache which will not be retained if power is lost, external ones are a problem.

However I believe the Palm device itself loses data before synching - I've seen data disappear after only a few minutes (through an auto-shutoff cycle). As well, I expect that if either Desktop or Palm lose a file or event that sometimes sync may erase it from the other, depending on how revision flags are used in those software and set in the case of loss. (Synching of databases, whether Palm or unrelated, inherently has a trap of producing the "lowest common denominator" if "new" or "deleted" flags are not correctly set.)

And make sure your HotSync|Custom settings in Desktop are set so it overwrites the handheld. If you lose data on the handheld, such as occurs if batteries are removed for long or you perform a hard reset to clear a problem, synch will erase data in Desktop if set for the handheld to over-write the desktop. (If that happens, look for backup files in Desktop's directory.)

Also, note that the non-cradle charging cables may not provide a reliable power connection because they lose connection when handled - they don't have strong alignment of the connectors in the front-back direction. A few have a tab that projects over the back of the Palm. I glued a flat piece of plastic to the back of the cable connector to project over the back of the Palm to provide stability. That still leaves flexibility to bend the other way, you might check that the spring clips are engaging to help.

With the TX, the sync cable for connector-compatible Treo devices appears to work, including for charging, and has strong latches.

Palm say charging will be slower with simple cables than with the ones that use a power brick, but I don't see a big problem in time.

But here's one bit of good news: Desktop makes a backup of files during synch, put in the ProgramFiles\Palm\{user}|xxxx sub-directories with *.bak names. (I don't know how to use them, but Palm's web site or the various forums should have information.)

If you are using multiple monitors with Windows XP and have difficulty maximizing Desktop when operating with only your laptop's display, right click on the icon at the bottom of the screen and Maximize. That should open it onscreen instead of on the then imaginary second display. (Sure, "go figure" but with the understanding that the multiple monitor feature in Windows XP is flaky. A number of applications have the problem, including some of Microsoft's, but many don't so I suspect something needs doing right in the application to avoid tripping over something in Windows.

I have had cases where HotSynch logged incomplete synch, but completed on next try, cases where HotSynch could not transfer added Contact and Memo categories after o/s upgrade (resulting in incomplete synch or classification of items as Unfiled), and cases of Hotsynch showing competed but in fact it did not synch all records. All with Desktop 4.xx and M5xx devices, I have not used the TX long enough to comment.

Repair has information on opening the case, replacing battery, replacing display.
> For the M5xx series:
- The screws may be Torx 6 or Torx 4 (poor fit), TX similar.
- The back has 3 tabs each side, facing outward, at approximately 1, 2.2, and 3.7 inches from the top of the edge, approximately .4 inches wide, plus a tab top centre. Push the side tabs in with a thin knife or like tool to release, then pull the cover down to clear the top tab which is easy to break. (Or you can pop the edge up with a broad thin tool - carefully.)

> For the TX (and perhaps T5):
- I've had the TX fail to turn on. The reset button on the back restored it.
- The TX has small Torx screws in the back of the case, a poor fit to T4.
- The front and back plastic pieces are held together with snap-over clips of some kind, two along each side.
- The TX has separate top and bottom pieces, the top one is held in by round hole-projection tabs which require that the top be fitted to one side of the case first then the other side put in place.

The thread size of the point and cap of two stylus for a Palm 5xx, one a Belkin brand, is #8-36 (fine thread).


Refer to HP's Palm web pages, or other sources such as Brighthand forum, for reset instructions for each model. (Some sources do not give the most thorough modes, and there are variations between connected to computer and not.)
> Typically there are stages, from soft reset to extra hard reset (guaranteed to erase data), and the ultimate: open the case and disconnect the battery for several minutes. (Try Palm solution ID 887, but it may not list all methods such as extra hard.) I made a label to place on the back of my Palm.
>Note that the TX, and perhaps other late models, have some non-volatile memory so just letting the battery run down will not erase personal data. For the TX there is an obscure difference in the hardest reset routine, between connected to sync-power cable and not, in thoroughness of erasing data.
>Back up your Desktop data of course, and set HotSync|Custom to have the Desktop over-ride the handheld so that your data is pushed back into the handheld. (Except keep System set to Handheld Overwrites Desktop, the HotSync manager will handle that correctly.)


I've had failure of HotSync functionality of the M5xx series, fixed by disconnecting the battery for a while, as even extra hard reset wouldn't work.

Note that infrared synch requires three settings (at least in O/S 4.14 with Palm 5xx device, I've never been able to with the TX which seems to have fewer settings) - on the HotSync page select IR both below the square icon, in the pull-down menu under Connection Setup, and in the menu that pops up on right-clicking the icon in the Windows Tray (which doesn't always show up). (As well, "Port in use by another application" is a common failure of IR synch - try a soft reset to clear that.) Cable synch seems more automatic, working even when set to IR synch, but can be forced in those two locations. Note as well that there are options in Desktop|Tools|Setup/HotSynch icon|Setup controlling when HotSynch is available. I believe that you need to keep the user ID under Network unchecked for local synch methods of cable and IR to work.
And I'm confused about the serial port selections in Setup - USB is a type of serial port that some software lumps in with convential serial ports, but there are seperate selections for each type in the menu that pops up on right-clicking the icon in the Windows Tray.
Plus, if you try to synch over a network you may need to tell your firewall(s) to allow that.
So, I see four places that you need to look at.

Occasionally you may get a message that HotSynch could not handle all data (such as archive all deleted). Do HotSynch again. (I don't know if the archive of deleted files does then occur or is lost.) Do keep data files like Memos to a reasonable length as they'll be truncated during HotSynch if too long. (Note that Desktop 4.1.4 covers several models, so allows entries and file sizes that earlier models cannot handle - the M505 for example.)

Operating System

Note that Windows 7 has a Windows XP mode in addition to a compatibility mode but only in the Pro (and probably Ultimate version, but not the basic and Home versions). Perhaps that will run Palm Desktop software if it won't run in normal mode. Windows 7 has tighter security and compatibility rules for software, to prevent functional and security problems.

Credit to Palm and Handspring

Let's credit Palm for making the PDA useful.
It's size and features worked for people.
They progressed from the Palm Pilot to the TX.
Some key people left Palm to start Handspring, to provide a PDA with more capability for accessory modules to communicate and gather data (even a camera module).
Handspring then produced a viable Smartphone, the Treo.
Later the two companies merged, continuing the Treo (the Handspring was becoming obsolete by then) and the Palm PDAs.

Unfortunately while Palm may have provided the inspiration for the iPhone, and some hints of the future such as scrolling display with finger swipe in the TX, their last implementation was a mess - the TX' user interface, whereas Apple worked hard on that.

The iPhone is becoming what the Palm and Handspring devices once were - data collectors. Among the interfaces people are producing are blood oxygen sensor, blood glucose sensor, speed-measuring radar, and clip-on lenses for the camera - plus many use-specific applications.

References: has several tips under Quick Answers, from Ben Steeves. has useful forums sells accessories such as stylus, cases, screen protectors, and synch cables.
Don't forget to use Help in Palm Desktop 4.1.x. For example, it covers the involved process needed to get ability to sync via infrared (4.2 seems dumbed down). Then you may need to visit the foregoing web sites to learn why you sometimes get a message that the IR port is in use by another application.


Palm might take note of the theory that Sony failed in the North American market because its products were too complicated to use. I know of many Palm devices sitting unused, especially ones given as gifts. The TX is especially poor, with its many additional features.

Copyright Keith Sketchley page version 2015.12.05

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